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1832 To 1836.


Edited and Superintenved by CHARLES DARWIN, ESQ. M.A. F.R.S. F.G.S., Ere.






James Hall Collection


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Tue number of species of Fish described or noticed in the following Part of the Zoology of the Beagle, amount to 137. It is right to observe that, judging from Mr. Darwin’s manuscript notes, relating to what he obtained in this department, this is probably not more than half the entire number which he collected. Unfortunately a large portion of the valuable collection sent home by him arrived in this country in too bad condition for examination, and was necessarily rejected.

The localities visited by Mr. Darwin, and at every one of which more or fewer species of fish were obtained, were the Cape Verde Islands,—the coast of Brazil, including the mouth of the Plata, together with several inland rivers and streams in that district,—the coasts of Patagonia, and the Santa Cruz river,— Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland Islands,—the Archipelago of Chiloe,—the coasts of Chile and Peru,—the Galapagos Archipelago,—Tahiti,—New Zealand, King George’s Sound in Australia,—and, lastly, the Keeling Islands in the Indian Ocean. The great bulk of the species, however, are from the coasts, east and west, of South America.

The particular locality assigned to each species respectively in the following work may be relied upon as correct ; pains having been taken by Mr. Darwin to affix a small ticket of tin, with a number stamped upon it, to each specimen, and to enter a note immediately in the manuscript catalogue, having the same number attached. In only three or four instances these tickets were found wanting, on the arrival of the collection in this country.

A considerable portion of the species examined and described are new to science, especially of those collected in South America, and the adjoining Islands and Archipelagos. The new ones are supposed to amount to seventy-five at least, constituting more than half the entire number; and amongst these are apparently seven new genera,



It may be interesting to state more particularly from what localities the new species principally come, and what proportion they bear to the entire number brought from each of those localities. Thus from Brazil about half are considered new ;—from Patagonia at least half ;—from Tierra del Fuego, the Falkland Islands, and the Galapagos Archipelago, all are new, without exception; and nearly all from Chiloe, and the coasts of Chile and Peru. Of the species brought from Tahiti, New Holland, and the Indian Ocean, not above one-fourth are new. This might have been anticipated from the better knowledge which we have of the Ichthyology of that quarter of the globe, than of South America.

It is much to be regretted that the portion of the collection which has been lost to science, was obtained in localities most abounding in novelties, judging from that portion of it which has been saved. Thus, not above five or six species will be found noticed in the following work, from Tierra del Fuego, where Mr. Darwin took especial pains to collect all he could, and, judging from his manu- script catalogue, he must probably have obtained between thirty and forty. From the Falkland Islands again, there have been only saved two out of fifteen or sixteen,—from the coasts of Chile and Peru, not half the entire number obtained, and not above half from the coasts of Patagonia.

There is also described not above half the species brought from King George's Sound, and the Keeling Islands; but as the Indian and Australian Species, or at least the former, have been more frequently brought to Europe than the South American, they are less to be regretted than these last.

It is fortunate that the whole of the species obtained by Mr. Darwin in the Galapagos Archipelago, amounting to fifteen, have been preserved, and are described in the following pages.

It may now be useful to mention, to what groups principally—first, the entire number of described species belong, and, secondly, that portion of them which are considered new. Both these points will be best judged of from the following table, in which the whole collection is parcelled out according to the families.


Percipa. Entire No. of species 18 whereof new 11 Brought up 5 . 45 22 Mutupz . . . : Bape ScoMBRID& 7 3 TRIGLIDE . : . : ao Beak TEUTHYDIDE . f sD CorrTips® 2 sae ATHERINIDE . Pt tia oe | aan ScoRPENIDE F : . 4 sed Mucitipe . 23 ScIHZNIDE . ; : : 10 et) BLENNIDE . nO! 7 SPARIDE 1 aed | GoBIDE ‘4 i : pone. Saw” Manip& 2 LasripzE . - : PIE Bens : es CHETODONTIDE . 2 Lopuip# I

45 22 Toran c : ; - 82° Torat, New 41

INTRODUCTION. vu MALACOPTERYGII. Siturip#. Entire No. of species 3 whereof new 2 Brought up . 30 21 CyerINIDE . Sets ° Ae aaa BARRE G CycLoPTERID& 2 2 Esocipm! ; . 1 ECHENEIDID & 1 SALMONIDE. = 8 7 ANGUILLIDE 6 2 MUURID Re. foe es oO 5 [perhaps more. ] PLEURONECTIDE . Abt 4 Pent | [probably more. ] 30 21 Tora. ; ; ; . 39 ToraL, NEw 25 LOPHOBRANCHII. SynenatnHipm®. Entire No. of species . . 3 whereof new . 3 PLECTOGNATHI. Tretropontipm. Entire No. of species . . 7 whereof new aie 3 BauisTIDA ; F : - : Rss, eink Toran : : 4 : : 12 ToTaL, NEW 5 CYCLOSTOMI. Perromyzonipm#. Entire No. of species . . 1 whereof new. if TOTAL IN THE SEVERAL ORDERS. AcanTuoptTeryau. Entire No. of species . . 82 whereof new < . 41 MAtLacoPTERYGIL : ; ; . 39 . 29 LopHoBRANCHII 3 F 3 : Rode ; i x i rege: PLECTOGNATHI . : : 2 : cea) . : : Fas, CycLosTomI 1 : . ; c ool Granp ToTaL . : zi 5 137. Granp Tora, NEw . 79

It appears from the above table that of the entire number of species, three- fifths belong to the Acanthopterygian fishes,—rather more than one-fourth to the Malacopterygian,—and about one-eighth to the remaining orders united.

In the Acanthopterygians, the new species amount to one-half; in the Mala- copterygians, to about two-thirds; in the remaining orders together, to rather more than one-half.

Looking, therefore, to the entire number of species described, the Acanthop- terygians prevail; and it is in the same order that there are most new ones: but looking to the proportion, which in each order the new ones bear to the entire number, it is among the Malacopterygians that this proportion will be found highest.

Restricting our view, it will be also seen, in the Malacopterygians, that the new species are relatively most numerous in the fresh-water groups, such as the Siluride, the Cyprinide, and Salmonide, in which three families taken together,


they amount to five-sixths of the whole. The Clupeide are an exception, in which all the species are apparently new.

All the species described, belonging to the three families above mentioned, in which there are so many new, viz. the Stluride, the Cyprinide, and Salmonide, are from South America, and the Falkland Islands, excepting one from New Zealand.

Of the remaining fresh-water fishes in the collection, three out of five are presumed to be new. One of these is a species of Perca, from the Santa Cruz river, in South Patagonia; the second is a species of Dules, from the river Matavai, in Tahiti; the third a species of Atherina, from Valparaiso. Perhaps, however, this last is not strictly an inland species.

The entire number of fresh-water species in the collection is twenty-three, and the entire number of new ones amongst these is eighteen. The large proportion of these latter is a circumstance in confirmation of a remark which Cuvier has somewhere made, that the fresh-water fishes of foreign countries are much less known and understood than those found on the coasts. It may serve also as a hint to future travellers.

The seven new genera in the collection belong—one to the Scienide, from the Galapagos Archipelago ;—one to the Scombride, from North Patagonia ;— three to the Blennide, whereof one is from the Archipelago of Chiloe, the second from the Falkland Islands, and the third from New Zealand;—one to the Cy- prinide, embracing three species, from South Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego, and New Zealand ; and, lastly, one to the Salmonide, embracing two species from the Falkland Islands and Tierra del Fuego respectively.

It has been already mentioned, that all the species obtained by Mr. Darwin in the Galapagos Archipelago have been preserved. As they are likewise all new, and those islands appear to have been scarcely visited by any naturalist previously, it may be interesting to enumerate the several genera to which they belong, and the number of species in each genus respectively.

SERRANUS .... 3 species. Fam. PERCIDZ. 2

Prionotus .... 1 ,, TRIGLID.

Scorpana .... 1 ,, SCORPANIDA.

Prionopss V.G. 1 ,,

Pristipoma.... 1 ,, SCIANID-. \. ACANTHOPTERYGII. A TIS text sc 5 lpeor j

Curysopurys .. 1 ,, —— SPARIDE.

Gopitis ss I ecu GOBID-A.

Cossypuus .... 1 ,, LABRIDA. J

GopinsOxe. 1+ —— CYCLOPTERIDA. »)

Murena...... oe —— ANGUILLIDA. p MAbACOP Ea



In making the foregoing estimates, as regards the number of new species brought home by Mr. Darwin, I have been guided almost entirely by my own judgment. The difficulty, however, of ascertaining, in a miscellaneous collection of this nature, brought from various localities, what are really new to science, is very great; and this difficulty is much increased, where an author is situate apart from large public museums to which he might have recourse for comparison. Possibly, therefore, some of those described as new in the following work, may not be so in reality ; and, in one instance, as mentioned in the Appendix, this is known to be the case. My excuse, however, must rest upon what has been just stated. It is hoped that caution has been generally shown, at least in regard to specimens not in a good state of preservation; and, in several such cases, in which an accurate description was hardly practicable,—though they could not be referred to any known species,—they are not positively declared new, nor any names imposed upon them whatever.

I have, of course, consulted throughout the invaluable volumes of Cuvier and Valenciennes, so far as they have yet advanced in the subject ; and in them it will be found that a few species, brought by Mr. Darwin from South America, and still but little known, had nevertheless been previously obtained from the same country by M. Gay. The zoological atlasses of the three great French voyages by Freycinet, Duperrey and D’Urville have been also carefully looked through ; and, in regard particularly to the fish of South America, the works of Humboldt, Spix and Agassiz, and the more recent one, now in course of pub- lication, by M. D’Orbigny.

There is an equal difficulty felt by every naturalist at the present day, in distinguishing species from varieties. And in the case of Fish, residing in a peculiar element, and so much removed from our observation,—we are almost at a loss to know, at present, to what extent their characters may be modified by local and accidental causes, or how far we may trust a different geographical position for giving permanence and value to a slight modification of form different from what occurs in the species of our own seas. Still less easy is it to determine the true importance of characters, in instances in which it is only permitted to see a single specimen of the kind, or, at most, very few individuals.

Many mistakes, therefore, are liable to occur, in a work of this nature, arising from the above sources. The only way to prevent their creating any per- manent confusion in the science, is to describe all species of which the least doubt is entertained, in such detail, and with such accuracy, that they may not fail of being recognized by any observer, to whom they may occur a second time.

They will not then continue to hold a false position in the system, as spurious 2


species. They may not be new, or they may not be species at all,—but they will be known; and any mistake which has been committed will be at once rectified,—any new name which has been wrongly imposed, immediately degraded to a synonym. ;

Accordingly I have been careful in this respect; and I have in some in- stances, given full descriptions, even of species which are certainly not new, but which I did not find described by previous authors with all the detail that was requisite for completely identifying them ; or, leaving out what they have noticed, I have added such characters as they have omitted. My main object has been to render all the species, whether rightly named or not, easily recognizable ; and, however little the science may be advanced by what is brought forward, to make that advance, so far as it goes, sure.

The method of description, and the mode of computing the fin-ray formula, will be found conformable to the plan adopted in the Histoire des Poissons” of Cuvier and Valenciennes; a work which, in so many respects, must always serve as a model to labourers in this department of zoology.

The colours, in the great majority of instances, were, fortunately, noticed by Mr. Darwin in the recent state. The nomenclature employed by him for the purpose is that of Patrick Syme; and he informs me, that a comparison was always made with the book in hand, previous to the exact colour in any case being noted. Where I have observed any markings left unnoticed by Mr. Darwin, I have added them myself; and, in most instances, I have given the general disposition of the colours as they appear in spirits, from the circumstance of their being often so much altered by the liquor, and liable to mislead those, who have only the opportunity of seeing them in preserved specimens. This is what Cuvier and Valenciennes have frequently done in their work; and from them I have borrowed the practice.

In a work of this nature, it has not been thought desirable to enter into any discussion of the principles of scientific arrangement, or to effect any change in systems already received ; its main object being the description of species. For this reason, I have taken the groups almost exactly as they stand in the Histoire des Poissons” of Cuvier and Valenciennes, or in the ‘“ Regne Animal” of the former: yet there is reason to believe that many parts of their system will be found hereafter to require some modification, especially in regard to families and genera which have for their distinctive character the presence or absence of vomerine or palatine teeth. The small value which is to be attached to such character is pointed out in some instances in the following work, and much dwelt upon.


In conclusion, it may be stated, that the whole of the species in the col- lection of fish brought home by Mr. Darwin, described in the following pages, have been deposited by him in the Museum of the Philosophical Society of Cambridge. They are mostly in spirit, and, generally speaking, in a good state of preservation; some few, however, are in the state of skins only, and have

been mounted.


Swaffham Bulbeck, Jan. 8, 1842.





Perea levis, Jen. South Patagonia. Scorpena Histrio, Jen. . - + - Galapagos.

Serranus Specialise, Jen Galapagos Archipelago. | Sebastes oculata, Val.?2. . . . Valparaiso.

———— Goreensis, Val.? . Cape Verde Islands, Agriopus hispidus, Jen. . Archipelago of Chiloe. aspersus, Jen. . . . ~ Ditto. Apistus Bio 1 eee: King George arson labriformis, Jen. . . . Galapagos.

Gliax Jeni <3 0. Ditto. SCIZANID.

Plectropoma Patachonica, Jen. . North Patagonia. Otolithus Guatucupa, Cuv. Val. Maldonado.

Diacope marginata, Cuv. Keeling Islands. ————- analis, Jen. Coast of Peru.

Arripis Georgianus King George’s Sound. | Corvina adusta, Agass. . . . » Maldonado.

Aplodactylus punctatus, a: Umbrina arenata, Cuv. et Val. North Patagonia.

Dules Auriga, Cuv. et Val. . . Maldonado. ophicephala, Jen. . .. Coquimbo. Leuciscus, Jen. . . - . Tahiti. Prionodes fasciatus, Jen. Galapagos. Helotes octolineatus, Jen. King George’s Sound. | Pristipoma cantharinum, Jen. . Ditto. Aphritis undulatus, Jen. Archipelago of Chiloe. | Latilus jugularis, Val. . - - - Valparaiso. porosus, Jen. Central Patagonia. princeps, Jen... . . . Galapagos. Pinguipes fasciatus, Jen. North Patagonia. Heliases Crusma, Val. . . . . Valparaiso. Chilensis, Val. . . . Valparaiso. Percophis Brasilianus, Cuv. North Patagonia. | SPARIDA. Chrysophrys taurina, Jen... - Galapagos. MULLIDA. Upeneus flavo-lineatus, Cuv.et Val. Keeling Islands. MANID. trifasciatus, Cuv. . . . Tahiti. | Gerres Gula, Cuv. et Val. ? Rio de Janeiro.

Prayensis, Cuv. et Val. 2 Cape Verde Islands. Oyena, Cuv. et Val.? Keeling Islands.

| CHATODONTIDA. | Cheetodon setifer, Bl. Keeling Islands. | Stegastes imbricatus, Jen. . Cape Verde Islands.

TRIGLIDA. Trigla Kumnu, Less. et Garn. . New Zealand. Prionotus punctatus, Cuv. . Rio de Janeiro.

Miles, Jen. . . . . Galapagos. SCOMBRID&. COTTID. | Paropsis signata, Jen. North Patagonia. Aspidophorus Chiloensis, Jen. . Chiloe. 'Caranx declivis, Jen. King George’s Sound.

King George’s Sound.

tOrvus, Jen a 3 2:2) Labi. b

Platycephalus inops, Jen.


SCOMBRID Z—continued. Caranx Georgianus, Cuv. et Val. King George’s Sound. Seriola bipinnulata, Quoy et Gaim. Keeling Islands. hit.) 2a. «1 SOuth: Atlantic Ocean, Stromateus maculatus, Cuv. et Val.2 Chiloe.


TEUTHYDIDA. Acanthurus triostegus, Bl. Schn. Keeling Islands. humeralis, Cuv. et Val. Tahiti,

ATHERINIDA, Atherina argentinensis, Cu. et Val. ? Maldonado. microlepidota, Jen. Valparaiso. incisa, Jen... . . . . North Patagonia.

MUGILID. Mugil Liza, Cuv. et Val.? . North Patagonia. Po... . . . . Keeling Islands. Dajaus Diemensis, Richards. King George’s Sound.

BLENNID&. Blennius palmicornis, Cuv. et Val. Cape Verde Islands. Blennechis fasciatus, Jen. . . . Concepcion.

—ornatus, Jen. . . . Coquimbo. Salarias atlanticus, Cur. et Val. . Cape Verde Islands.


BLENNIDX—continued. Salarias quadricornis, Cuv. et Val.? Keeling Islands vomerinus, Cuv. et Val.? Cape Verde Islands, Clinus crinitus, Jen... . . . Coquimbo. New Zealand. New Zealand. Archipelago of Chiloe. Falkland Islands.

Acanthoclinus fuscus, Jen. . Tripterygion Capito, Jen. . Tluoceetes fimbriatus, Jen. . Phucoceetes latitans, Jen.

GOBID. Gobius lineatus, Jen. . . . . Galapagos. Gobius ophicephalus, Jen. Eleotris Gobioides, Val.

Archipelago of Chiloe. New Zealand.

LOPHIDA. Batrachus porosissimus, Cuv. et Val.2 Bahia Blanca.

LABRIDA. Cossyphus Darwini, Jen, . . , Galapagos. Cheilio ramosus, Jen. . . . . Japan? Chromis facetus, Jen. Maldonado. Scarus chlorodon, Jen. . Keeling Islands. globiceps, Cuv. et Val. . . Tahiti.

lepidus, Jen. . . . . . Tahiti. >

Keeling Islands,


SILURIDA. Pimelodus gracilis, Val. ? Rio de Janeiro. exsudans, Jen. . . . Ditto.? Callichthys paleatus, Jen.

CYPRINIDE. Peecilia unimaculata, Val. . . . Rio de Janeiro. decem-maculata, Jen., . Maldonado. Lebias lineata, Jen. . . . . . Ditto. multidentata, Jen. . . . Monte Video. Mesites maculatus, Jen. South Patagonia. alpinus, Jen. . Tierra del Fuego. attenuatus, Jen. . New Zealand.


Exoccetus exsiliens, B/.? Pacific Ocean. SALMONIDZ.

Tetragonopterus Abramis, Jen. . Rio Parana, S.America. tutilus, Jen, . , Ditto. scabripinnis, Jen. Rio de Janeiro, teniatus, Jen. . Ditto. ——_— ——-— interruptus, Jen. Maldonado.

SALMONIDAi—continued. Hydrocyon Hepsetus, Cuv. . . Maldonado. Aplochiton Zebra, Jen. Falkland Islands.

teniatus, Jen. Tierra del Fuego. CLUPEID.

Clupea Fuegensis, Jen. . Tierra del Fuego. arcuata, Jen. . Bahia Blanca. sagax, Jen... <1). dally

Alosa pectinata, Jen. . . North Patagonia.

Engraulis ringens, Jen. Coast of Peru. PLEURONECTIDA. Platessa Orbignyana, Val. ? Bahia Blanca. Res . King George’s Sound. Valparaiso.

Hippoglossus Kingii, Jen. .

Rhombus Do a sae ee anla es lanes Achirus lineatus, D’ Orb. Coast of Brazil. Plagusia poe two: ps oe COASHOL Patagonian


Gobiesox marmoratus, Jen. . . Archipelago of Chiloe.

———— pecilophthalmos, Jen. Galapagos,


ECHENEIDID. ANGUILLIDA:—continued, Echeneis Remora, Linn. . . . Atlantic Ocean. Murena lentiginosa, Jen. + + Galapagos. ocellata, Agass. . - + Rio de Janeiro, ANGUILLIDA. P. . . «~~ « Cape Verde Islands. Anguilla australis, Richards. . * New Zealand. iinesascnintiitaa $A. S So ine Conger punctus, Jen. . . . ~ Tierra del Fuego. - LOPHOBRANCHII, SYNGNATHIDA. Syngnathus acicularis, Jen. . . Valparaiso. aaa conspicillatus, Jen. . Tahiti. —-—_—~-— crinitus, Jen... . . Bahia Blanca. PLECTOGNATHI. TETRODONTID. nt Diodon nycthemerus, Cuv. . - : BALIST ct : sivalatis, Cuvl. . 2. Maldonado, Balistes Vetula, Bl. s « . «+ South Atlantic Ocean. antennatus, Cuv.?. . . Bahia Blanca. aculeatus, Bi. Se Ea iat eels Tetrodon aerostaticus, Jen. Aleuteres macalosus, Richards. . King George’s Sound, implutus, Jen, . . Keeling Islands. ~ velutinus, Jen. . Dittoy: aanblatie Jew. . \ Galapagos. Ostracion punctatus, Schn. . . Tahiti.

angusticeps, Jen. . . Ditto.


PETROMYZONIDA. Myxine australis, Jen. . . . . Tierra del Fuego.



Plate I. Perca levis. II. Serranus albo-maculatus. III. ———— labriformis. IV. ———- ol fax. V. Pinguipes fasciatus. VI. Prionotus Miles. (Fig.1. | AspidophorusChiloensis. Twice Mat. Size. la. Ditto. Wat. size. Dorsal view. cites ae 1b. Ditto. Ditto. Side view. 2. Agriopus hispidus. Twice Nat. size. 2a. Ditto. Nat. size. 2b. Ditto. Portion of the hispid cuticle L magnified. VIII. Scorpeena Histrio. 1X. § Fig.l. Prionodes fasciatus. 2. Stegastes imbricatus. xX Pristipoma cantharinum. XI. Latilus princeps. XI. Chrysophrys taurina. XIII. Paropsis signata. XIV. Caranx declivis. XV. torvus.

(Fig.l. Atherina microlepidota. - R Ditto. Magnified seales.

2. Atherina incisa. Nat. size. 2a. Ditto. Magnified scale. Ll 26. Ditto. Twice Nat. size. c¥ig.1. | Blennechis fasciatus. —la. Ditto. Teeth magnified. Blennechis ornatus. UL 3. Salarias vomerinus. Fig.l. Clinus crinitus. 7] 2. Acanthoclinus fuscus. (Fig.l. | Tripterygion Capito. 2. Gobius lineatus. XIX.< 2a. Ditto. Dorsal view. | 3. Gobius ophicephalus. \ 8a. Ditto. Dorsal view. XX. Cossyphus Darwini. XXII. Scarus chlorodon.






XXIX. Append.

tae 25S


Peecilia decem-maculata. Twice nat. stze.

. Ditto. Mat. size.

Lebias lineata. Ditto. Teeth magnified. Lebias multidentata.

. Ditto. Teeth magnified.

Mesites maculatus. attenuatus.

Tetragonopterus Abramis.

. Ditto. Mouth magnified, to show

form of maxillary. Tetragonopterus rutilus. Ditto. Mouth magnified. Tetragonopterus scabripinnis.

. Ditto. Mouth magnified.

Tetragonopterus interruptus.

. Ditto. Mouth magnified.

Aplochiton Zebra.

. Ditto. Magnified view of anal and

generative orifices. Aplochiton teeniatus. Alosa pectinata. ———— Magnified scale from nape. Hippoglossus Kingii. Gobiesox marmoratus. Ditto. Dorsal view.

6b. Ditto. Under side.



Gobiesox peecilophthalmos.

. Ditto. Lateral view. . Ditto. Magnified view of teeth.

Syngnathus acicularis. conspicillatus. crinitus.

Tetrodon angusticeps. Dorsal view of head. Aphritis undulatus.

Iluoccetes fimbriatus.

Ditto. Magnified view of teeth. Phucoccetes latitans.

Ditto. Teeth.

- . 4



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Perca Levis. Jen.


Pirate I.

P. nigricanti-fusco undique punctata ; vertice, fronte, rostro usque ad nares, et infra- orbitalium parte posteriort, squamatis ; sguamis, in capite ciliatis scabris, in corpore sublevibus.

B. 7; D. 9—1/11; A. 3/9; C.17; P. 15; V. 1/5. Lone. une. 11; lin. 5.

Form.—Much more elongated than the common Perch, with the back less elevated. Depth, beneath the commencement of the first dorsal, not quite equalling one-fifth of the entire length. Thickness, in the region of the pectorals, about two-thirds of the depth. Head not quite one-fourth of the entire length. Profile falling gently from the nape in nearly a straight line at an angle of about 45°: at the nape the dorsal line rises so as to interrupt its continuity with the slope of the profile, but it is nearly horizontal along the base of the dorsal fins. The jaws are nearly equal, but when the mouth is closed, the upper one appears somewhat the longer. A band of velutine teeth in each jaw, as well as on the vomer and palatines. Maxil- laries when at rest nearly concealed beneath the suborbital bones: these last with their lower margin distinctly denticulated ; their surface presenting several small hollows. Eyes rather above the middle of the cheeks, and about equi-distant from the extremity of the snout and the posterior margin of the preopercle ; their diameter is one-sixth of the length of the head ; the dis- tance from one to the other equals one diameter and ahalf. Nostrils double, a little in advance of the eyes ; the first orifice oval, the second round. Preopercle rectangular, with the angle rounded ;



the ascending margin finely denticulated, the teeth almost disappearing at the top; towards the angle the teeth become stronger and point downwards; they are also stronger and more scattered along the basal margin, inclining here a little forwards. Opercle with two flat sharp points, one a little below the upper angle, the other about the middle and terminating the gill cover. Both the subopercle and interopercle have their margins obscurely denticulated: the margin of the former is rather sinuous, and passes obliquely forwards and downwards to form a continuous curve with that of the latter. Crown, forehead, upper part of the snout as far as the connecting line of the nostrils, posterior half of the suborbitals, cheeks, and all the pieces of the gill cover, excepting the lower limb of the preopercle, covered with small scales, which are in most instances ciliated with a varying number of denticles, and feel rough to the touch : the extremity of the snout, anterior portion of the suborbitals, maxillaries, and lower jaw are naked. Above each orbit is a small semi-circular granulated plate, with the granulations dis- posed in strie. The suprascapulars terminate in an obtuse projecting point. The humeral bone forms a large osseous triangular plate above the pectorals, the salient angle terminating in three small teeth. Course of the lateral line a little above one-third of the depth till it arrives beneath the second dorsal, where it bends down to half the depth. Scales on the body larger than those on the head, of an oblong form, rounded at their free edges, which are scarcely at all ciliated, and for the most part quite smooth to the touch ; their concealed por- tion not wider than the free, with a fan of fourteen strie ; the rest of their surface more finely striated. The first dorsal commences a little beyond a vertical line from the termination of the humeral plate, and is almost continuous with the second, being only separated by a deep notch; the space occupied by the two dorsals together is exactly one-third of the entire length : spines strong ; the first scarcely more than one-third the length of the second, which is very little shorter than the third ; this last longest, equalling rather more than half the depth; rest of the spines gradually decreasing to the last, which is of the same length as the first. The second dorsal commences with a slender spine, not half the length of the first soft ray, which last is simple, the others being branched; third and fourth soft rays longest; the succeeding ones slowly decreasing to the last, which is rather more than half the longest. Anal preceded by three spines, the first of which is very short; second much longer and very stout ; third of about the same length as the second, but much slenderer; the first and second separated by a wide mem- brane from the third, which is closely united to the first soft ray; these last longer than those of the second dorsal, but in other respects similar. The anal and second dorsal terminate in the same vertical line ; and the last ray is double in both fins. Between them and the caudal is a space equalling one-fifth of the entire length. The caudal is slightly notched. The pec- torals are rather pointed, their length equalling two-thirds that of the head. Ventrals imme- diately beneath them, and of about the same length ; the first soft ray longest, and more than twice the length of the spine which precedes it.

Corour.—In spirits this fish appears yellowish brown, deepening on the back but becoming paler

on the belly, and covered all over with small dusky spots, one occupying the base of each scale.

Habitat, Santa Cruz River, Patagonia.





The University of Ch



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Drawn trom Wakare on svone by Warehouse Hawes.


Serranius adlbomacnlatis. Nee Sive


No true perch had been obtained from South America until M. D’Orbigny discovered one in the Rio-Negro, in North Patagonia, which has been since de- scribed by Valenciennes, under the name of P. trucha.* The present species was found dead by Mr. Darwin, high up the river of Santa Cruz, in South Patagonia. It is evidently very closely allied to the P. trucha, and is spotted in a similar manner; but it appears to differ in the scales not advancing on the snout beyond the nostrils, or covering more than the posterior half of the subor- bitals. ‘Those on the body are also particularly characterized by being so smooth, as hardly to communicate any sensation of roughness when the hand is passed from the tail towards the head, though the head itself is rough. This circum- stance has suggested the specific name. This species further disagrees with the one above alluded to in having the caudal slightly forked, not rounded ; and in having two soft rays less in the second dorsal, and one less in the anal. Valen- ciennes’s description, however, of the P. trucha is very brief; on which account I have been the more minute in that of the P. lewis.

This perch, with P. trucha, would almost seem to form a subordinate division in the genus, distinguished from that embracing all the other described species, by the character of the scales covering a large portion of the head which gives it a remarkable scienoid appearance. Both species may be known from all the North American perches, by their having the body spotted instead of banded, and by the smaller number of rays in the first dorsal. In this last character they agree with the P. ciliata, and P. marginata of Cuvier and Valenciennes.


S.. lateribus maculis albis serie longitudinali dispositis ; dentibus velutinis ; paucis, hic et illic sparsis, fortioribus, aculeiformibus, vel sub-conicis ; preoperculo margine ad- scendenti convexiusculo, denticulato; denticulis ad et infra angulum paulo majoribus ; operculo mucronibus duobus parvis, et spind intermedia forti, armato ; rostro et max- illis nudis ; squamis corporis leviter ciliatis pinnd caudali equalt.

@ 7. 2D. 10/13; A. 3/7; -C, 17, &c.—P.17; -Y¥. 14. Lone. unc. 16; lin. 9.

Form.—Of an oblong-oval form, with the greatest depth about one-fourth of the entire length. The dorsal and ventral lines are of nearly equal curvature. The profile is nearly rectilineal,

* Hist. des Poiss. tom. ix. p. 317. I refer to the quarto edition throughout.


falling very gradually from the commencement of the dorsal to the end of the snout, without any elevation at the nape. The head is one-third of the entire length. The lower jaw projects beyond the upper. The maxillary, which is broad, and cut quite square at its extremity, reaches to beneath the middle of the orbit. The suborbital has the margin entire and nearly straight. The upper jaw has a band of velutine teeth, broadish in front, but narrowing (the teeth at the same time becoming smaller and finer) posteriorly ; with an outer row of not much longer, but considerably stronger, subconic teeth, placed at rather wide intervals; besides these, there are three or four teeth on each side of the anterior portion of the jaw, equally strong as those last mentioned, but more curved, the points reclining backwards, and set within the velutine band. In the lower jaw, there is the same band as above, but narrower, and with the teeth more in fine card than velutine, with stronger ones anteriorly, and along the posterior half of each side, where there are six or eight, standing nearly in a single row, very stout and curved, though scarcely longer than the others; outside the band, and on each side of the symphysis, there are three or four moderately strong subconic teeth, at short distances from each other, which may be considered as small canines. On the vomer and palatines, the teeth are velutine. The eyes are rather large, and placed high in the cheeks; their diameter is about one-sixth the length of the head: the distance between them equals one diameter and a quarter. The nostrils consist of two orifices, placed one before the other, a little in advance of the eyes, roundish-oval, the posterior one largest. The preopercle has the ascending margin not quite rectilineal, being slightly convex, and the angle at bottom rounded; the denticulations on thes former are fine, but very perceptible ; they become rather stronger and more distant at the angle, and a few of this character are continued along the posterior half of the basal margin. The opercle is armed with three points; the upper one is triangular, small, and not very obvious; the middle one is a moderately strong spine, about a quarter of an inch in length; the third is a little below this last, and resembles it in form, but is much smaller. The membrane of the opercle terminates in a sharp angle, and is produced considerably beyond the middle spine. The line of separation between the opercle and subopercle is not visible. The gill-opening is large, and has seven rays. There are no scales on the snout or jaws, or between the eyes, or on the anterior portion of the suborbital; but they are present on the cranium behind the eyes, cheeks, (where they are numerous), and pieces of the gill-cover; the limb of the preopercle, and the lower margin of the interopercle, however, are nearly free from them. Those on the opercle are larger than those on the cheeks. All these scales, as well as those on the body, are finely ciliated, communicating a slight roughness to the touch. The supra-scapular is represented by a larger and harder scale than the rest, of a semi-elliptic form, striated on its surface, and obsoletely denticulated on the margin. The lateral line is parallel to the back, at between one- third and one-fourth of the depth. The pectorals are attached below the middle, of a rounded form, the middle rays being longest, and about half the length of the head. The dorsal commences exactly above them, and occupies a space equalling half the entire length, excluding the caudal. The spines are sharp, and moderately strong: the first is rather more than half the length of the second, but scarcely more than one-fifth of the length of the third, which is longest, equalling more than half the depth of the body: from the third they decrease very gradually to the ninth, which is of the same length as the second ; the tenth is again a little higher ; this is followed by the soft rays, which are nearly even, and about one-third higher than the last spine; the last two or three, however, are a little shorter than the others,


The anal commences in a line with the fifth soft ray of the dorsal, and ends a little before that fin: the second spine is strongest, and twice the length of the first : the soft rays are longer than those of the dorsal. There are a few minute scales between the soft rays of both dorsal and anal, to about one quarter of their height. The caudal is even, but may possibly have been worn so by use. The ventrals are directly under the pectorals, a little shorter than them, and pointed.

Cotour.—‘ Varies much. Above pale blackish-green; belly white; fins, gill-covers, and part of the sides, dirty reddish orange: on the side of the back, six or seven good-sized snow-white spots, with not a very regular outline.—In some specimens, the blackish-green above becomes dark, and is separated by a straight line from the paler under parts.—Again, other specimens are coloured dirty reddish-orange,’ and gallstone yellow,’* the upper parts only rather darker. But in all, the white spots are clear ; five or six in one row, and one placed above. Sometimes the fins are banded longitudinally with orange and black-green.”—D.

Habitat, Galapagos Archipelago.

This species, which is undoubtedly new, was obtained by Mr. Darwin at Charles Island, in the Galapagos Archipelago. As many specimens were seen, it is probably not uncommon there. It appears to be a Serranus, but its canines, if they can be so called, are very small and inconspicuous. Its naked jaws re- quire it to be placed in Cuvier’s first section of that genus, though much larger than most of the species contained in it, and rather differing from them in general form. In some of its characters, it would seem to make a near approach to Cen- tropristes, between which and Serranus, there is undoubtedly a very close affinity.


2. Serranus Goreensis. Val.? Serranus Goreensis, Cuv. et Val. Hist. des Poiss. tom. vi. p. 384.

Form.—The general form approaching very closely that of the S. Gigas. Greatest depth one- fourth of the entire length. Head rather less than one-third of the same. The diameter of the eye is one-fifth of the length of the head; and the distance from the eye to the extremity of the snout is about one diameter and a quarter. The lower jaw is covered with small scales, but not the maxillary. The nostrils consist of two round apertures, the anterior one rather larger than the posterior, and covered by a membranous flap. The teeth in the upper jaw form a velutine band, with the outer row in fine card, and two stronger and longer ones near the middle of the jaw on each side: below there is a narrow band of fine card, with stronger ones situated as above. The denticulations at the angle of the preopercle are well developed, espe- cially two teeth which are much stronger than any on the ascending margin. The opercle has three flat spines, the middle one longest and projecting further than the others; but the termi- nating angle of the membrane projects beyond this spine to a distance equalling the length of

+ In this and in all other cases, Mr. Darwin has used Werner's Nomenclature of Colours, by Patrick Syme.


the spine itself. The dorsal has the fourth spine longest, and equalling just half the entire length of the spinous portion of the fin. Both the spinous and soft portions have minute scales between the rays, covering rather more than the basal half of the fin ; they rise highest just at the commencement of the soft portion. The caudal is square at the: extremity, or with rather more tendency to notched than rounded; the basal half scaly. The anal commences in a line with the third soft ray of the dorsal, and has the basal half of the soft portion finely scaled : the second spine is strongest, but the third somewhat the longest. The pectorals are rounded, with the seventh and eighth rays longest ; finely scaled on the upper side for one-fourth of their length from the base, but without any scales beneath. The ventrals are a little shorter than the pectorals, with a spine of about the same length and stoutness as the third anal spine, and rather more than equalling half the length of the soft rays: they are obsoletely scaled on the upper side between the rays.

D. 11/16; A. 3/8; C. 15, &.—P.17; V. 1/5. Length 7 inches.

Corour.—C(In spirits.) Of a nearly uniform bister brown, stained and mottled here and there, par- ticularly on the sides below the lateral line, with patches of a much paler tint.

Habitat, St. Jago, Cape Verde Islands.

The Serran above described, was procured by Mr. Darwin at Porto Praya.

I am not sure that I am right in referring it to the S. Goreensis of Valenciennes, as in so extensive a genus, and one in which the species are so extremely similar,

it is very difficult to identify any one in particular, without the opportunity of comparing it with a large number. But it seems to agree with that species better than with any other I can find noticed by authors; and the island of Goree is sufficiently near the